Wednesday, December 8, 2010

Important Plesk backend files in linux

Sometimes we must have to look at the backend files. For example in the case of a mail sending is failed we have to look at the mail log. So it is hard to search everytime for the location of files so I am posting the all Plesk backend files together, Enjoy.

Plesk root directory : /usr/local/psa

Version : /usr/local/psa/version

Admin password is stored : /etc/psa/.psa.shadow

Plesk configuration file : /etc/psa/psa.conf

Restart Plesk : /etc/rc.d/init.d/plesk restart


Main httpd configuration file : /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf

Plesk httpd : /etc/httpd/conf.d/zz010_psa_httpd.conf

Include conf files are under : /etc/httpd/conf.d (depends on the location specified in main httpd)

Startup script for plesk apache : /usr/local/psa/admin/bin/httpsdctl start

Apache main log files under : /var/log/httpd


VPN : Instaling and configuring on windows 2003 server

What is Virtual Private Network (VPN)?
A virtual private network (VPN)  is a network that uses a public telecommunication infrastructure, such as the Internet, to provide remote offices or individual users with secure access to their organization's network. A virtual private network can be contrasted with an expensive system of owned or leased lines that can only be used by one organization. The goal of a VPN is to provide the organization with the same capabilities, but at a much lower cost.
A VPN works by using the shared public infrastructure while maintaining privacy through security procedures and tunneling protocols such as the Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP). In effect, the protocols, by encrypting data at the sending end and decrypting it at the receiving end, send the data through a "tunnel" that cannot be "entered" by data that is not properly encrypted. An additional level of security involves encrypting not only the data, but also the originating and receiving network addresses.
Components Of VPN
A VPN in servers running Windows Server 2003 is made up of a VPN server, a VPN client, a VPN connection (that portion of the connection in which the data is encrypted), and the tunnel (that portion of the connection in which the data is encapsulated). The tunneling is completed through one of the tunneling protocols included with servers running Windows Server 2003, both of which are installed with Routing and Remote Access. The Routing and Remote Access service is installed automatically during the installation of Windows Server 2003. By default, however, the Routing and Remote Access service is turned off.

The two tunneling protocols included with Windows are:
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP): Provides data encryption using Microsoft Point-to-Point Encryption.
Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP): Provides data encryption, authentication, and integrity using IPSec.


RSYNC detailed explanation with examples

rsync is a program that behaves in much the same way that rcp does, but has many more options and uses the rsync remote-update protocol to greatly speed up file transfers when the destination file already exists.




rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... DEST


rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... [USER@]HOST::DEST

rsync [OPTION]... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC [DEST]

rsync command common options

--delete : delete files that don't exist on sender (system)
-v : Verbose (try -vv for more detailed information)
-e "ssh options" : specify the ssh as remote shell
-a : archive mode
-r : recurse into directories
-z : compress file data


Tuesday, December 7, 2010

The whole list of Cpanel backend and log files

In some situations we are using the backend files rather than the GUI interface. Using cpanel backend files are less time consuming and sometimes it is the only way to understand the actual issues. So it is better to byheart these all important cpanel backend and log files.  Please take a look at these and I am sure that it will help you in some situations.
+ bin- apache binaries are stored here - httpd, apachectl, apxs
+ conf - configuration files - httpd.conf
+ cgi-bin
+ domlogs - domain log files are stored here
+ htdocs
+ include - header files
+ libexec - shared object (.so) files are stored here -,
+ logs - apache logs - access_log, error_log, suexec_log
+ man - apache manual pages
+ proxy -
+ icons -

Init Script :/etc/rc.d/init.d/httpd - apache start script
Cpanel script to restart apache - /scripts/restartsrv_httpd

Conf : /etc/exim.conf - exim main configuration file
/etc/localdomains - list of domains allowed to relay mail
Log : /var/log/exim_mainlog - incoming/outgoing mails are logged here
/var/log/exim_rejectlog - exim rejected mails are reported here
/exim errors are logged here
Mail queue: /var/spool/exim/input
Cpanel script to restart exim - /scripts/restartsrv_exim
Email forwarders and catchall address file - /etc/valiases/
Email filters file - /etc/vfilters/
POP user authentication file - /home/username/etc/domainname/passwd
catchall inbox - /home/username/mail/inbox
POP user inbox - /home/username/mail/domainname/popusername/inbox
POP user spambox - /home/username/mail/domainname/popusername/spam
Program : /usr/sbin/exim (suid - -rwsr-xr-x 1 root root )
Init Script: /etc/rc.d/init.d/exim



Sunday, October 24, 2010

Mysql issue: Access denied for user ‘root’@'localhost’

You may receive the “Access denied for user ‘root’@'localhost’” message while accessing mysql from the command prompt. The error message states that the Mysql password for user ‘root’ is incorrect and need to reset the password using skip-grant-tables option.

ERROR 1045 (28000): Access denied for user ‘root’@'localhost’ (using password: NO)

How to reset a Mysql password for ‘root’?

# /etc/init.d/mysql stop

Make sure all the mysql processes are stopped by executing the killall command

# killall -9 mysqld


Tuesday, October 19, 2010

5 Tips to Free Up Disk Space on Linux Server

From time to time we need to clear up disk space on our servers, whether it is to just reduce disk space to help minimize the costs and usage of backup servers, or if it’s to clean up the server and help with performance.
Here are 5 easy ways you can instantly clear up hard drive space and reduce the number of inodes on your server:

1.) Remove User Generated cPanel Backups

Many times cPanel users aren’t aware that they should delete a cPanel backup before performing another cPanel backup. Essentially they are taking backups of backups and this can quite easily add up to several gigabytes of space just for one account. A quick and easy way to remove these is to run the following command from root:

for user in `/bin/ls -A /var/cpanel/users` ; do rm -fv /home/$user/backup-*$user.tar.gz ; done

Make sure to copy the full command exactly how it is above. This will work for cPanel hosting servers only.


Sunday, October 17, 2010

Installing Nagios - the simple way

Nagios is a network monitoring application. Using nagios we can monitor the hosts and services and it will alert the users when things go wrong.


For configuring nagios first we want to compile apache and php.

And also make sure that gcc glibc glibc-common gd gd-devel openssl is installed in your system.

Then create Nagios User account and group

useradd -m nagios
groupadd nagcmd
usermod -a -G nagcmd nagios
usermod -a -G nagcmd apache

Download the following packages from

1. nagios core
2. nagios plugins
3. nagios addons (nrpe)

then extract all the files.

Nagios Core

Get into the nagios core directory:

./configure -with-command-group=nagcmd
make all
make install
make install-init
make install-config
make install-commandmode
make install-webconf #Installing nagios web interface:


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